i-o-i-p and Mitchell Kane are pleased to present the following graphic narratives
observations concerning information - objects - images - people
As an artistic strategy Kane employs a combination of painting, drawing writing, photography, and design to create non-hierarchical visual narratives. All of the observations, though comprised of physical artworks, are developed specifically for a screen experience and shared as PDFs.
[Click on the bold red titles below to view individual graphic narratives, because of the file size, they may take a short moment to upload.]
Pending Distribution Spring 2019
"About visual discord, when populism alone doesn't do it for you."
[Color broadsheet, 60"x40", edition of 2, w/1 exhibition copy]
"nSAGE [Somnambulist]," 2019
"To the sleepwalkers..."
[Color broadsheet, 60"x40", edition of 2, w/1 exhibition copy]
"nButterscotch Drawings," 2019
"Apron Simplicissimus," 2019
[three interrelated narratives]
recent releases 2019
"Snake Indigo," 2019
"Let me tell you about the indigo snake..."
"Bespeckled Poster [Amateur Lecture]," 2019
Inspired by the virtues of a non-professional status. Ink, white-pigmented shellac, enamel on aluminum.
"Debriefing Mouseholes," 2019
Elaborating on the Interiority of the Mousehole Narrative
A cosmological narrative - figures in a public/private space
[five interrelated narratives - about color and locale and status]
I live, we
in a moment
honed to experiences
laughter, remorse, complicit
I say pluralistic and mean more
walking the street, immersed in film,
hanging with friends all mediums
and medias suffice & to be honest
let them all presently be known now
vulnerable unsatisfied mangled
"Educational Broadsheet_Curriculum," 2019
"Educational Broadsheet_TDS," 2018
"Texture Study," 2018
A long vertical narrative as expressed through textural images and anecdotal information.
"B/W/M/Y Mouseholes," 2018
"Demarcate your spaces, measure them carefully, Immerse yourself."
"Mouseholes cannot exist without architecture."
This narrative chronicles three disparate, and commingled, interests in architectural space.
"Green Drawings w/Miscellaneous Observations," 2018
Have you been here before? This public/private narrative is a conglomeration of places and spaces associated through drawings, photography and a painting.
A multi-imaged narrative expressed through a group of drawings [graphite, ink, colored pencil on paper] and diaristic color plates. "Neuro-graphemes" is a companion piece to "Dithering."
"Let me unexplain...hither and dither, meander and wade. Consider these drawings a neural response or a residual record or a graphic crime demarcating spatial ramblings...one mark flows, bangs into another, high-tails around for a while, above, beneath, intertwined layer upon layer, only to dissipate into an everyday occurence. It's a fact... These are drawings of how I think when I look - PointA to PointB to PointXYZ - at certain things.
Dithering is two-fold: in digital (visual and audio) environments additional white noise is added to create a smoother [corrected] transition between areas of color, value or sound. As a verb, dither, is a state of agitation or anxiousness.
"What's up with your all's eyes?" Figures imagined, sight-impaired, waiting for the next shoe to drop. Five figures with corresponding titles/observations for future endeavors.
How Deep is Deeper? Our habitats say a lot about our adaptability. Who are these Deepers?
This project, created through an array of multiple forms - drawings, photography, sculpture and graphic design - triangulates a sensibility of a familiar and strange metaphorical habitat.
"How The Space Is," 2017
These drawings [graphite, colored pencil, ink on archival paper] reveal the spatial atmosphere, or dense matter, which envelopes the figures within the architecture.
"They Inhabit A Space Of No Particular Origin or Mass," 2017
A series of figurative drawings based on the hybridization between a worm, seahorse and dragon.
These drawings hint at the answer to the ongoing question, who exactly inhabits the Mouseholes?
"The What, and Where These Inhabitants Live," 2017
These architectural sketches represent a physical formation of where "They" live. These "block" drawings are a continuation into defining the physical attributes of the Mousehole.
These THREE individual projects look at the figure, atmospheric (physical or emotional) space and the architectural. They should all be seen as a singular project - 3 as 1. I realize that in offering the disparate elements that there will be an initial challenge to comprehend them as a whole. I believe that the specificity of the mediums and media used in each of these three parcels is crucial to the development and fabrication of the overall larger narrative that asks, How are we now and what are we allowed to depict?
"Post-Experiential: "Wanna Make A Better Future? Speculative Collaborative Methodology and Its Implications on Contemporary Aesthetics," 2016-17, Part 1 [Introduction]
"Post-Experiential: "Wanna Make A Better Future? Speculative Collaborative Methodology and Its Implications on Contemporary Aesthetics," 2016-17, Part 2 [Conclusion]
"There are numerous ways to tell a story. This is, at the end of the day, a story, or narrative, if you like."
This, two-part, visual, talking point, presentation for "Post-Experiential" reflect the process, research and results of a speculative seminar/studio produced in the Summmer of 2016 at Art Center College of Design, Pasadena California. This proposal was accepted for presentation at the Athens Institute of Education and Research Conference, Greece, Spring 2017.
K_OVER [Mousehole], 2017
The Mouseholes are a safe space, they have always been. The Mousehole is also a nonspectacle. It is resilent as an architecture cut-out of the stability of a dominant architecture. This project show thw sculpture in two views: frontal and 3/4. Matte Red Gel, Blue Sharpie on Black Printed Cardboard. 13" x 9" x 6"
Songbook And Cascading Graphs, 2016/17
A visual libretto about a boy coming of age and his father must reconcile this transition as he prepares to tell his son the twisty/turvy backstory of his youth. "Songbook and Cascading Graphs" is a visual narrative that will parallel the production of a physical group of paintings, photography and digital prints following a similar theme.
Jalisc'ole [Mousehole], 2015/17
A black sculpture of infused glass – monolithic and dimunitive in scale, leaning strategically against the wall. This object continues the twenty-five year conversation Kane has been having with the comic/populist notion of the mousehole as an object that has the power to depict both creative interiority and ulterior activity. The image in this sculpture is of an exhibition space in transition in Guadalajara, Jalisco Mexico.
K_2 Mousehole, 2017
Two singular objects presented as textural information - "K Mousehole," a sculpture measuring 22"x 24"x 5", Aluminum, paint, permanent marker and Adhesive; And, "K_2 Mousehole," a painting sitting on the floor and against the wall, 23"x 16" x 1/2", oil, encaustic on MDF. K simply stands for black in printing terms.
Peloncillo Counting, 2017
Landscape as information. In "Peloncillo Counting" two disparate works - images [of the atmospheric Southwestern landscape] and images [of flat, densely textured painted mouseholes] - brought together through distant alone. The juxtaposition is severe, but necessary. Peloncillo refers to a mountain range in Southwestern New Mexico where an annual bird count takes place. [New Mexico & Arizona photography credit: Renata Golden, 2017]
This i-o-i-p graphic narrative is the seventh installment of Density/SUBJ. Density/SUBJ is an ongoing investgation into two different pursuits -- a collection of texture studies based solely on subjective vernacular experience and density drawings concerned with the obfuscation of an image. Together this pairing creates a visually provocative, uninfringed imagery.
Shot Gun Wedding, 1993 
A story about a potentially misguided road trip while hitch-hiking from Tacoma Washington to Phoenix Arizona. This is the first multi-page narrative I created in 1978, which was published in the catalog "NonSpectacle and The Limitations of Popular Opinion," Hirsch Farm Project, 1993.
MORNING [EGGPLANT] TABLE_PLANK WITH SURFACE EMBELLISHMENTS, 2016
A hand-formed, crafted, manipulated, surface to be used for a multitude of purposes -- to hold materials, to work upon or to be visually or physically caressed. Casein, flat latex, gloss enamel, semi-gloss alkyd on pine. 72" x 34.5" x 2"
The Dimesial Mouseholes, 2016
This graphic narrative continues a twenty-five year preoccupation/investigation with the subject and form of Mouseholes. These new sculptures challenge the material and physical qualities of what may constitute basic assumptions and the parameters of a mousehole. Mouseholes, in general, rest in our comic/iconic [Americana] imagination. They are inert objects rendered as a negative space as a hole-in-the-wall. What lives inside? Will something emerge? Is it friend or foe? Is this a passage out or an entry back into our space?
Dimesial is a fictional term invented to discuss the qualities of certain types of cultural objects that do not fit conveniently into prescribed categories. Dimesial is post-experiential. Dimesial is not exclusive to these objects alone, though the qualities which define them provide us with their value, and subsequent meaning.
More Dimesial Mouseholes, 2016
An addendum to "The Dimesial Mouseholes," 2016.
Red-Bottomed Mousehole [ERCP], 2016
This Mousehole is suggestive of a spatial contradiction between the material object and graphic image quality.
Density/SUBJ6 [Marie], 2016
A group of drawings is highly influenced by Romanesque Architecture, Ghosts, Angels and Public Space.
This collection of images was created during an intensive pre/post op early Summer period and suggests an optimistic turning of events.
A group of drawings [transparent and cartoonish] intermingled within, atop, images of localized flora and fauna.
Ampullaria takes its name from an ongoing investigation with complex organic bodily forms that are responsible for enzyme production and digestion within our bodies.
Stained Glass, 2016
Brightness, or an unknowing light. This ioip is an observation about stained glass windows and the profound relationship they may have to our contemporary preoccupation with screen culture. Created for Temple Beth Israel, Highland Park, Los Angeles, California, June 2016.
ODDI & VATER, 2016
“Oddi & Vater” makes reference to two specific digestive parts: the Ampulla of Vater and Sphincter of Oddi.
Their relationship is like all relationships. Every member contributes its part to keep the host plugging along. The predictability of the relationship is what’s so fascinating. It is both complex and self regulatory, until something snaps.
The tangible relationship between the images and the drawings are similarly finessed. These new “subj” images are inundated with curvy transparently thin or bulbous lines forming a membrane atop the pictures. The forms taking their aesthetic clue from organic internal organs.
Resiliency [Ancient Warrior: A Hasty Retreat], 2016
A visual and textual dialogue between an aging and younger soldier stuck in a battlefield of self-sacrifice, self-preservation, love and indifference. This narrative is a companion to the 2011 i-o-i-p narrative, "Soldiers In Love". Can a creative expression be overly subjective, too personal?
Density/SUBJ4 Drawings [Neural], 2016
This project is a collection of twenty-eight drawings investigating the spatial relation between the pictorial and informational. In a digital/screen culture, what sits beneath the surface of all visual information is coding. It is a system of of information invisible to the eye. Density/SUBJ4 [Neural] transposes, albeit with artistic license, the neural information atop the images creating a meshwork of obfuscation and vulnerability.
Genretopo [Portrait//Persona], 2016
Genretopo [Landscape/Geography], 2016
Genretopo [Still-Life/Object], 2016
Genretopo [SW], 2016
Genretopo [Waiting], 2016
Genretopo [Luckyu], 2016
Genretopo's [genre + topography] are a group of interrelated visual narratives being released together. The "genretopo's play with the contemporary notion of what constitutes genre - landscape [environment], portrait [people], still-life [material].
These specific "Genretopo's present specific exchanges in both image and language. These exchanges vary - some are slow idenifying pieces of information cascading down a page, while others are walls of texture demarcated by a thinly veiled colorful structure.
Though related by title and having a similarity in form, these narratives exist primarily as individual PDF objects, in part to stress the importance of their particular boundaries. These titles also exist as larger physical panels for exhibition purposes and measuring approximately 72"x 36.
Density/Subj3 Drawings [Malignancy], 2015
Density/Subj3 is a visual narrative about malignancy in four-parts: Pre-Drawings, Square, Vert and >>>>. Biology is a quirky thing. It's what we're made of. Often it functions well, then it doesn't. It goes rogue and pays no attention to boundaries. We can anthropomorphize it as a purposeful foe or an ideological construct or as something we may want to empathize, so we can influence an advantageous outcome: it is neither. It's merely biology, which renders it sublime.
This narrative, Density/Subj3, is a visual meandering consisting of two key components that are conflated into several singular pictures: the individual Density Drawings [comprised of calligraphic marks or the most abstract of writings are touch-based in origin - tapping and dragging of a finger(s) across a screens surface]; Subj3 are photographic images comprising a surface to be invaded, marked upon/over/within. The image provides a shallow space of a subjective nature.
Together: the density, created by the complexity of the calligraphic marks, intermingling with the photographic surfaces, which conceal & reveal an inkling of pictorial-biological body/space/information, create an aesthetic equivalency or normalcy. The pictorial source is not important, because it carries no specific or associative meaning of it's own. The varying density of the patchwork – black (bad) versus white (good) – is the story.
This narrative has twenty-six images. All four color.
Mouseholes: Gummed, 2015
Produced as a counterpart to “Mouseholes: Yellow and Chewed,” “Mouseholes: Gummed” is an elemental reimagining of marginization and institutional mischief often associated with the iconic 'comic' space.
Dai Draemenn [Day Dreaming], 2015
This is a story between two mythical deep sea predators - Kraken (giant squidish) and Lyngbakr (giant whale-like). The relationship discussed concerns making scalable decisions. This narrative consists of words and images. The several pages near the end of the project are "Density Drawings," which attempt to visualize, through patterning and overlapping marks, the liminal nature of choice.
Drought [Where Ms. Anecdotal Lives], 2015
Drought [Where Ms. Anecdotal Lives] is an eleven-page narrative about two persons deeply ensconced in a compromised ecological situation.
"What size is your aquatic footprint?"
ABetterBetter [glowy], 2015
ABetterBetter [glowy] celebrates our techno-societal immersion into blue-light culture. Compact in form and comprised of an observational rant interspersed among pictures, ABetterBetter [glowy] remains a visual homage to all of the eerie glowing bodies and shining faces with whom we share public space.
Blue-light is everywhere, and where it is not, we'll carry it with us wherever we go.
Tie-Dye In Situ, 2015
There are objects in our daily lives which are frequently overlooked and often experienced as background information. These objects - whether mundane or personal or mere craft - define us and inform our lives in unpredictable ways. Tie-Dye In Situ focuses on such a group of objects [commissioned, circa 1960 tie-dyed sheets and pillowcases], which were photographed in existing light conditions while on location [in Los Angeles and Altadena California] for Aquarius, new television series airing in late May.
Aquarius portrays a dry and dusty police drama set in Los Angeles 1967, which follows a cop in pursuit of Charles Manson (and family) prior to the infamous murders during the Summer of 1969.
A shout-out to Ellen Brill and Luis Sanchez
vWhiskey [or virtual Whiskey], 2015
How do you feel about sharing fluids with other persons in public?
This interactive sculptural project is comprised of nineteen unique mouth-blown glass bottle forms, brass tubes, tequila, whiskey, inkjet on Tyvek coated paper with contemporary "looping" sound compositions. The sound component is based on the background music/auxiliary din [a synthesized do-pe-doop, pe-doop] of early video games such as Club Penguin and Tetris.
Sound titles: vWhiskey_cp1; vWhiskey_cp2; vWhiskey_cp3; vWhiskey_cp4; vWhiskey_cp5; vWhiskey_cp6; vWhiskey_cp7; vWhiskey_cp8; vWhiskey_cp9. Produced by Jeremy Dorrance. These titles are exclusive to this site.
The overall physical dimensions of vWhiskey: 36" height x variable width and depth, depending on location.
"vWhiskey" [or virtual Whiskey] is a companion piece to the earlier i-o-i-p graphic narrative "Angerflasheavesdropping2startnow" 2014, which is an eavesdropping narrative about two boys finding themselves caught in an exhilarating and unpredictable situation.
Mouseholes: Yellow and Chewed, 2015
Mouseholes, this symbolic and cartoony-form, so much a part of vernacular Americana, has been a reappearing motif in Kane’s work since 1992. First used as a conceptual device to suggest creative transition,these images humor the relationship of cohabitation – Who or what lives in that hole? Are they coming or going? What customs do they share? How can they be teased/baited out? Or, maybe they should just be left alone to fend for themselves? This graphic narrative, Mouseholes: Yellow and Chewed revisits, and expands visually upon, this transitional tale.
Graphic Narratives [2008 to 2014]
Violent Video Games Are Good For Children..., 2014
Violent Video Games...is a post-experiential narrative about our preoccupation with mediated-imagination. If you spend more than two hours a day on media chances are that you're living a post -experiential life. Another point, how often do you notice people out to dinner or in movies theaters prior to the start and a majority of people are more engaged with their portable device than other people?
Chair Confusion, 2014
An i-o-i-p single-sheet comparing specific mid-twentieth century chairs that are often confused with one another.
Vice Versa Versus Etcetera, 2014
Vice Versa Versus Etcetera is a narrative consisting of eighteen paintings. This project attempts to interpret the visual sensation of the screen experience, outside of pictures or code.
Notes on Vice Versa Versus Etcetera: data-baiting. data-baiting utilizes visual and/or informational data (marks, pictures, content) as visual attractors. Also at play is that our learned experience, via contemporary media, strongly invests us directly in the process of Leveling-up. getting to the next level, or gaining awards, for one's social, economic, aesthetic participation.
This new ioip single-sheet visually asks whether digital space is flat or perspectival. This single-sheet is a study for Vice Versa Versus Etcetera, 2014.
IDEAL ESTÁNDAR, MODELO DE FRANQUICIA SOCIAL DE PRODUCCIÓN DE OBRA DE ARTE MÚLTIPLE UTILITARIO
At Oficina y Proyectos Culturales in Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico. Curaduría: Carlos Ashida. October 2014
Proposed "mural as exhibition checklist"
A revisitation to an earlier (2008) graphic narrative that suggests a criteria for "the objectification of subjectivity." The specific qualities associated to this criteria reveal that subjectivity, like all other approaches to creativity, can be utilized objectively. Subjectivity is not merely intuitive, happenstance or something one likes. It's a complex set of relationships with specific behavior traits.
A compilation of voices, without delineation, struggling to negotiate some basic personal and cultural intangibles.
[In connection with "virtual Whisky"]
Second Coming Sooner, 2014
For our love of expectations. This twelve page digital document creates a visual and linguistic play about our cultural involvement surrounding expectations, liberty and impatience within the contemporary "second coming" drama.
51/50 & Simpli-, 2013
51/50 & Simpli- is the companion exhibition project to Zihua Tlan. Inspired by Grimmelshausen's Simplicius Simplicissimus (1668) about war-torn 17th century Europe, this graphic narrative looks at the relationship of two people with very different ways of understanding their place in the world. 51/50 & Simpli- is comprised of three large-scale graphic narratives (233cm x 111cm each).
Digital Native, 2013 [one-sheet]
Digital Native, 2013 [multi-page color]
Digital Native is a painting project co-joined to 51/50 & Simpli-. These paintings address the functiality of pictorial space as information - partial picture, partial map. There is an intimate bond between the visual and the tactile. Why use paint to address the vulnerability of the digital surface? There are two versions: a black and white one-sheet and colored multi-page pdf.
Zihua Tlan, 2013
Zihua Tlan (Place of Woman), was commissioned by Arena Mexico Arte Contemporaneo in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. This graphic narrative was created specifically to act as an introduction to their new website. Constructed in an expanded "image by image" linear format of 28 images, this narrative focuses on the complex intermixing of business, geography and gender reassignment as both visual and didactic information.
Shoe-horning, Charlatans & Panderers, 2013
Culturally we are all engaged in an endeavor where we are constantly "selling everything imaginable to one another." The boundaries to this prevalent pursuit of communication knows no pause. We like to be "sold." Shoe-horning is one such condition of justifying a relationship of exchange.
Shoe-horning, Charlatans & Panderers is a private conversation between Wick and Tours, and with the introduction of visual matter by Ponyca, it weaves a tale of subjects ranging from 14th Century crucifixion painting and euangelion green to marine ornamentation and the pastoral space of Industrial Park architecture.
The Social Lives of Paisley and Quercus, 2013
Central to The Social lives of Paisley and Quercus is the negotiation of different types of information [visual,factual and fictional] with geographical space. Key phrases include: California Oaks; the shadow/shade dilemma; and, paramecium. This graphic narrative is expressed through a series of drawings [ink and pencil on paper] and a conversational dialogue between Paisley and Quercus.
The graphic narrative, Sploring, looks at a current tendency in contemporary art and culture best described as "part sport & part exploring." This narrative includes images from the work of Chelsea Rector, Michael Parker, Christopher James, Eric Chang and Adam Overton. A full color PDF. 1.5:1 ratio. Special thanks to the artists.
5out offers, in all likelihood, the 'sound' equivalent of a graphic narrative.
"Beautiful and bountiful. An unexpected translation from the virtual to a physical environment."
8& is a chromatic neutral textural space.
"A somewhat manic, yet original, approach suggesting another way to move past the institutional formations of representation and meaning."
Twice'd reveals a glimmer of a saturated everyday moment.
"What we learn from this project is that different spaces instill different behaviors in people and relationships, objects and ethical considerations."
These three independent image-rich narratives focus on the organization of vernacular spatial information via neurological experience (sensibility).
TYPO.EDU: Permissiveness and Spatial Challenges in Creative Education, 2012
Constructed through parallel narratives, two in text and two visual, TYPO.EDU, raises
a number of questions about the dynamic relationship of education and creativity.
Ribbon Shelf, 2012
A short and clean story about an object which expresses itself through tactile acrobatics.
Fabrication: Adam Mason
Soldiers In Love: What Gamut Clef Said To Gambit Cliff, 2011
This hybridized visual narrative suggests that within potentially catastrophic events, such as war, love, extreme sports, and health, our mythological and neurological impulses, which are buried deep within our DNA, may be one in the same.
Dopamine, He: Poster Boy, 2011
The neuro-aesthetic companion event to Happy Beginning, 2011.
Happy Beginning, 2011
A friend said, a friend told him, "every relationship is a love story, and it is crucial that you know where you are as you move through this beautiful story." Themes represented in this project include: systems of opposition; love; sensibility; language; fiction.
Some earlier critical responses: "a raw and sensitive portrayal of love and loss." "Brave, brave, brave."
Available upon request
Glossy Private Public, 2011
Glossy Private Public addresses the bandied about topic of private and public space, and how this powerful subject of civic and vernacular use has within the last twenty years been consolidated through practice, convenience, and economic necessity into a pervasive language of "social" purposefulness. This Visual Talking Point discursively spells out past and future aesthetic concerns surrounding this subject.
Lagtime: The Space Afforded Change, 2011
This Visual Talking Point looks at our contemporary notion of change as being spatial in origin. Also, 2006 and 2007 images from Private Little Suns; Days Worm, Masculine; vNH; Private Little Suns-S are included. Revised.
The Silliness of Plural, 2010
This Visual Talking Point explores, through a series of loosely configured observations and opinions, how plurality influences creativity. Running simultaneously within the document is a series of paintings produced from 2000 to 2010, which focus on the naturalization of the screen or blog-space.
Something Purposefully...(so wrong), 2010
Also, Exhibition Configuration
Something purposefully...( So Wrong) describes the characteristics of social design as it applies to the visual arts. This is the first ioip VTP produced for exhibition. It measures 108" x 66" in a staggered, two column, vertical configuration. MACO, Mexico City (April), Frieze, London (October).
Great Ubiquity: After the Advent of the PC right up through social networking (Weschler's Lament), 2010
This visual talking point looks at the shift in our sensibility as fostered through media. Contents include: The McLuhan 1969 Playboy Interview; Music – Digital Man (digitize My Ass)_Hirsch Farm Project 1999 (Mitchell Kane/Mayo Thompson) and Diagonal Line #24, 2010.
Figureheads & Widows, 2010
"Commentary on the sensibility in John Millei's recent work"
Reclamation and Organizational Event, 2009
"A recovery narrative – G.Severini, E.Mari, J.Columbo, H.Harpignies, and Pennant Drawings"
Levels and Visual Rewards, 2009
"This VTP suggests that we no longer judge art work as being good or bad, but rather as a process seeking a reward for our looking. The artists Taft Green's and Katie Grinnan's work is used to describe this shift."
"invisiblecar is a compact description of a very tactile and haptic object that looks faster than it actually is."
other Visual Talking Point titles:
On the phenomenon of drawing, 2003-2006
subj: a definitive notion of subjectivity, 2001-2008
The Nut that didn’t know..., 2006-2009
socialspace [Fritz Haeg, Mark Allen, Fallen Fruit], 2008
Twisted: Creative Methodology [Pastors Conference], 2009
Reclining Figure in Zero Gravity [SUF_David Schafer], 2009
Including, Hirsch Farm Project, an arts-based think tank, 1990-2000
Please note all of these projects are visual graphic narratives produced specifically as PDFs and may take a moment or two to upload.
i-o-i-p is periodically updated. If you are having difficulty downloading the documents or have inquiries,please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org
i-o-i-p is a project of Mitchell Kane [biography/bibliography] concerning observations on information-objects-images-people.
©2019_MitchellKane. All Rights Reserved.
All content and concepts represented in these individual projects are exclusive to i-o-i-p.
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